Posts tagged ‘treaty’

December 6,

Michael Collins Signs His Death Warrant and Treaty

December 6: TODAY in Irish History:

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Michael Collins the big fella

Michael Collins image in For the Love of Being Irish – An A-Z of Irish History

Snippets of Irish History by Conor Cunneen IrishmanSpeaks 

Conor is a Chicago based Motivational Humorous Business Speaker, Author and History buff.

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WATCH: A Short History of Ireland

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 1921: Treaty is Signed. Ireland Gains (a level of) Independence

In the early hours Dec 6th, the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland are signed in London. It brought to an end the Irish War of Independence, though tragically led to the Irish Civil War. The treaty allowed for twenty-six counties of Ireland to have autonomy from Britain while remaining in the British Empire. Northern Ireland, which had been created by the 1920 Government of Ireland Act had the option to opt out of the new Irish Free State, an option it duly exercised.

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Superb Video on Treaty Negotiations

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The final lines of Robert Barton’s notes on the meeting read:

“Lloyd George then asked whether we as a Delegation were prepared to accept these Articles of Agreement and to stand by them in our Parliament as they as a Delegation would stand by them in theirs.

Arthur Griffith replied ‘We do.’

We then discussed the release of the prisoners and procedure for ratification and other matters whilst awaiting the final draft.

The final draft was read over, agreed to and signed; also the Annex.

The British Delegation lined up to shake hands and say good-bye, and the Conference ended at 2.20 a.m. on December 6th.”

The War of Independence was over. But tragically,  the new nation was not finished with war.

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SEE: Documents on Irish Foreign Policy for excellent detail on Treaty negotiations.

Michael Collins: Image from For the Love of Being Irish

Michael Collins image in For the Love of Being Irish

Collins wrote later that day a terribly prophetic statement:

“When you have sweated, toiled, had mad dreams, hopeless nightmares, you find yourself in London’s streets, cold and dank in the night air. Think—what have I got for Ireland? Something which she has wanted these past seven hundred years. Will anyone be satisfied at the bargain? Will anyone? I tell you this; early this morning I signed my death warrant. I thought at the time how odd , how ridiculous —a bullet may just as well have done the job five years ago.”

SEE: Pathe News Film of Treaty Negotiators

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READ FREE eBook: Detailed Correspondence on Treaty from The Royal Irish Academy’s Documents on Irish Foreign Policy series.

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Robert Barton on Treaty Signing.

During a vitriolic Treaty debate in the Dail on Decembe 19th, signatory Robert Barton explained why he signed.

“I am going to make plain to you the circumstances under which I find myself in honour bound to recommend the acceptance of the Treaty. In making that statement I have one object only in view, and that is to enable you to become intimately acquainted with the circumstances leading up to the signing of the Treaty and the responsibility forced on me had I refused to sign. I do not seek to shield myself from the charge of having broken my oath of allegiance to the Republic—my signature is proof of that fact (hear, hear). That oath was, and still is to me, the most sacred bond on earth. I broke my oath because I judged that violation to be the lesser of alternative outrages forced upon me, and between which I was compelled to choose. On Sunday, December 4th, the Conference had precipitately and definitely broken down. An intermediary effected contact next day, and on Monday at 3 p.m., Arthur Griffith, Michael Collins, and myself met the English representatives. In the struggle that ensued Arthur Griffith sought, repeatedly to have the decision between war and peace on the terms of the Treaty referred back to this assembly. This proposal Mr. Lloyd George directly negatived. He claimed that we were plenipotentiaries and that we must either accept or reject. Speaking for himself and his colleagues, the English Prime Minister with all the solemnity and the power of conviction that he alone, of all men I met, can impart by word and gesture—the vehicles by which the mind of one man oppresses and impresses the mind of another— declared that the signature and recommendation of every member of our delegation was necessary or war would follow immediately. He gave us until 10 o’clock to make up our minds, and it was then about 8.30. We returned to our house to decide upon our answer. The issue before us was whether we should stand behind our proposals for external association, face war and maintain the Republic, or whether we should accept inclusion in the British Empire and take peace.

Arthur Griffith, Michael Collins, and Eamonn Duggan were for acceptance and peace; Gavan Duffy and myself were for refusal—war or no war. An answer that was not unanimous committed you to immediate war, and the responsibility for that was to rest directly upon those two delegates who refused to sign. For myself, I preferred war. I told my colleagues so, but for the nation, without consultation, I dared not accept that responsibility. The alternative which I sought to avoid seemed to me a lesser outrage than the violation of what is my faith. So that I myself, and of my own choice, must commit my nation to immediate war, without you, Mr. President, or the Members of the Dáil, or the nation having an opportunity to examine the terms upon which war could be avoided. I signed, and now I have fulfilled my undertaking I recommend to you the Treaty I signed in London.”

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1922: One year after the signing of the Treaty, the Irish Free State is established as a Dominion of the British Empire. For one day, it encompassed ALL of Ireland. On December 7th, Northern Ireland opted out and remained part of the United Kingdom.

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Product Details

SHEIFGAB! Staying Sane, Motivated and Productive in Job Search.

An insightful, realistic, yet humorous book on the job search process by Today in Irish History Curator Conor Cunneen

Special accessible price for job seekers on Kindle of $2.99

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Want to learn more about Ireland? See these images and more in the acclaimed For the Love of Being Irish

Irish gift ideas. Best selling Irish booksRonnie Drew and Luke Kelly - Musical Irish Gifts to the worldJoyce Image in For the Love of Being IrishMichael Collins: Image from For the Love of Being Irish

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This history is written by Irish author, business keynote speaker and award winning humorist IrishmanSpeaks – Conor Cunneen. If you spot any inaccuracies or wish to make a comment, please don’t hesitate to contact us via the comment button.

Visit Conor’s YouTube channel IrishmanSpeaks to Laugh and Learn.

Tags: Best Irish Gift, Creative Irish Gift, Unique Irish Gifts, Irish Books, Irish Authors, Today in Irish History TODAY IN IRISH HISTORY (published by IrishmanSpeaks)

   

December 2,

Joe McCarthy is censured by US Senate – Cromwell Abandons Waterford Siege – Irish Prisoner Shooting

December 2: TODAY in Irish History:

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McCarthy and Welsh Exchange, June  1954

Joe McCarthy (right) in exchange with Joe Welch

Snippets of Irish History by Conor Cunneen IrishmanSpeaks 

Conor is a Chicago based Motivational Humorous Business Speaker, Author and History buff.

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WATCH: A Short History of Ireland

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1649: Cromwell Abandons Siege of Waterford.

oliver cromwell siege of drogheda

The not very attractive Oliver Cromwell

Cromwell opts to abandon the siege of Waterford following a short siege. Cromwell was forced to withdraw partly because of stubborn resistance, but also due to disease and  dreadful weather. Some estimates suggest that he lost over two thousand men during this siege.

Since landing in Ireland in August, his forces had successfully besieged Drogheda and Wexford putting thousands to the sword during a brutal campaign.

Waterford was spared partly because Cromwell’s army was exhausted and short on food, he wintered his troops in Cork, Youghal and Dungarvan

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1920: Shooting of Escaping Irish Prisoners

Civilian questioned by Black and Tans
Civilian questioned by Black and Tans

By late 1920, the rules of war (What are they you might ask?) had broken down on both sides as the increasingly vicious Irish War of Independence gained momentum. Both sides were guilty of atrocities some of which did provoke public comments. Hansard reports the following exchange in the English House of Commons about the shooting of “escaping” Irish prisoners:

 Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY asked the Chief Secretary for Ireland how many prisoners in Ireland have been shot dead while trying to escape, according to police reports, up to the end of November of this year and during the present year; how many have been wounded; and how many of these were handcuffed at the time of their death or wounding?

Mr. GALBRAITH asked the Chief Secretary for Ireland what is the total number of persons who have been shot at in Ireland when attempting to escape from custody; and how many of such persons have been wounded and killed, respectively?

Mr. HENRY According to the police reports the number of prisoners fired at while attempting to escape from custody within the period from 1st January to 30th November, 1920, is 11. Of these nine were killed and two wounded. One of the prisoners killed and one of those wounded are stated to have been handcuffed while attempting to escape.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Is the right hon. and learned Gentleman aware that when the bodies have been given to the relatives that in many cases those men have been found to be riddled with bullets through the head: how does he think that men can try to escape from police lorries; and can he inform me if all these cases have been investigated by a court of inquiry?

Mr. HENRY I must have notice of that question.

Mr. MacVEAGH Can the Attorney-General say whether the figure he has quoted includes those shot dead on the allegation that they were attempting to resist arrest?

Mr. HENRY he question put to me was as to the number of men shot whilst attempting to escape from custody.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Surely the right hon. and learned Gentleman can say whether there has been an inquiry into these cases, in view of the very serious allegations made and reported in the newspapers throughout the country?

Mr. SPEAKER We are getting a long way from the question on the Paper.

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1921: Treaty Negotiations

Michael Collins, Arthur Griffith and the other plenipotentiaries return from London to present Britain’s proposed treaty draft to government colleagues. The seeds were being set for a bitterly divided cabinet which would eventually lead to civil war.

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SEE: TREATY DRAFT with Michael Collins Notes

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1954: Joe McCarthy is censured by US Senate

Joe McCarthy
Senator Joe McCarthy

Joe McCarthy is censured by US Senate for conduct unbecoming a Senator. Joe McCarthy, Republican Senator for Wisconsin, arch anti-communist, unfounded fear monger and generator of McCarthyism was the son of Bridget Tierney, from County Tipperary and Timothy McCarthy whose own father emigrated from Ireland.

McCarthy first came to national prominence when in February 1950, he stated at an Ohio County Women’s Republican Club in Wheeling, West Virginia,  “I have here in my hand a list of 205 (State Department employees) that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department.”

Facts and human decency were never that important to the Senator. A media frenzy fed his ego, encouraging to make more and more (now seen as) outlandish statements. McCarthy though was sowing on fertile soil. America “knew” the USSR was evil and a major threat to the western way of life.

At the time, McCarthy had the support of many established and up and coming politicians including Richard Nixon and Robert Kennedy who served as counsel for McCarthy’s investigative committee for a period of time. McCarthy terrified Washington and ruined many lives for a period of years with many unsubstantiated allegations. His power and popularity declined following the Army-McCarthy hearings.

Listen: Joe McCarthy on Meet the Press

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The Army-McCarthy Hearings

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READ: Covering Joe McCarthy by UPI journalist Alvin Spivak

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shamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrock

.
NEW                    NEW

Product Details

SHEIFGAB! Staying Sane, Motivated and Productive in Job Search.

An insightful, realistic, yet humorous book on the job search process by Today in Irish History Curator Conor Cunneen

Special accessible price for job seekers on Kindle of $2.99

.

shamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrock

Want to learn more about Ireland? See these images and more in the acclaimed For the Love of Being Irish

Irish gift ideas. Best selling Irish booksRonnie Drew and Luke Kelly - Musical Irish Gifts to the worldJoyce Image in For the Love of Being IrishMichael Collins: Image from For the Love of Being Irish

___________________________________

This history is written by Irish author, business keynote speaker and award winning humorist IrishmanSpeaks – Conor Cunneen. If you spot any inaccuracies or wish to make a comment, please don’t hesitate to contact us via the comment button.

Visit Conor’s YouTube channel IrishmanSpeaks to Laugh and Learn.

Tags: Best Irish Gift, Creative Irish Gift, Unique Irish Gifts, Irish Books, Irish Authors, Today in Irish History TODAY IN IRISH HISTORY (published by IrishmanSpeaks)