Posts tagged ‘anglo irish treaty’

January 7,

The Saddest Day in Irish History?

January 7: TODAY in Irish History:

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De Valera

Former allies: Civil War foes, Michael Collins and Eamonn De Valera

Snippets of Irish History by Conor Cunneen IrishmanSpeaks 

Conor is a Chicago based Motivational Humorous Business Speaker, Author and History buff.

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WATCH: A Short History of Ireland

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1922: Dail Approves Treaty – Civil War Looms

January 7th 1922 is possibly the saddest day in Irish history when a vote on the Treaty unfortunately set the scene for the Irish Civil War.

Thirty-two days after Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith sign the treaty in London  granting Ireland legislative and financial independence for the first time since 1800, the divided Dail votes on the Treaty: sixty-four for approval and fifty-seven against.

De Valera and his supporters’ refusal to accept the democratic vote of the Dail meant civil war was inevitable.

The debate took a huge emotional toll on the participants. The official Dail record states that at the end of the debate, when De Valera knew he had lost the vote:

“PRESIDENT DE VALERA: I would like my last word here to be this: we have had a glorious record for four years; it has been four years of magnificent discipline in our nation. The world is looking at us now——

(The President here breaks down).”

Civil war was now just months away between men who fought side by side during the War of Independence.
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First Dail Eireann – Happier Times

first dail eireann
Front Row: From Left to Right: Second Left Michael Collins (pro-Treaty), Cathal Brugha (anti), Arthur Griffith (pro) Eamonn De Valera (anti)

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The vote followed a vitriolic debate were each side accused the other of bad faith. Michael Collins—who when he signed the Treaty wrote “I have signed my death warrant—was a significant target for personal attacks from anti-Treaty members of the House.

Pro-Treatyite Cathal Brugha commented: “While the war was in progress I could not praise too highly the work done by the Head Quarters’ Staff. The Chief of Staff and each of the leaders of the subsections—the members of the Head Quarters’ Staff—were the best men we could get for the positions; each of them carried out efficiently, so far as I know, the work that was entrusted to him they worked conscientiously and patriotically for Ireland without seeking any notoriety, with one exception; whether he is responsible or not for the notoriety I am not going to say (cries of “Shame” and “Get on with the Treaty”). There is little more for me to say. One member was specially selected by the Press and the people to put him into a position which he never held; he was made a romantic figure, a mystical character such as this person certainly is not; the gentleman I refer to is Mr. Michael Collins.”

The Treaty vote may well have signaled the saddest day in Irish History.

READ: The Treaty Debate January 7th 1922

A brief timeline:

1916: Easter Rising. Michael Collins, Eamonn De Valera, Cathal Brugha take part in the Rising.

1918: Sinn Fein wins massive majority (73 seats) in General Election and refuses to take its seats in UK Parliament

1919: January 21: Sinn members meet in Dublin proclaiming the first Dail and declaring an Irish Republic (not recognized by Britain)

On the same day in 1919 in a totally unconnected incident, two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) are ambushed and killed at Soloheadbeg, Co. Tipperary by IRA men including Dan Breen and Sean Treacy. The unauthorized attack is now accepted as the first incident in the brutal War of Independence which would eventually force Britain to the negotiating table.

1921: December 6thThe Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London. The following debate in Dail Eireann primarily centered on whether Collins, Griffith and company had the authority to sign an agreement on behalf of the Irish people.

1922: Dail Eireann votes to ratify the treaty. De Valera and anti-Treaty members refuse to accept the vote. Senior members of the IRA who had fought so hard to oust Britain from Ireland were now on different sides. The pro-Treaty side included Richard Mulcahy, Eoin O’Duffy, Michael Collins, Emmet Dalton, Piaras Bealsai. The  anti- Treaty side included Rory O’Connor,  Liam Mellows,  Cathal Brugha,  Austen Stack, Countess Markievicz and President of the Dail Eamonn De Valera.

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Happier Times: Kevin O’Higgins Wedding

Kevin O'Higgins and best man Rory O'Connor Wedding
De Valera, Kevin O’Higgins and Best Man Rory O’Connor. O’Higgins would approve  the execution of his friend O’Connor during the Civil War

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June 28th: Opening act of what would prove to be a vicious civil war when Irish government forces bombard the Four Courts in Dublin which anti-Treaty forces had taken by force.

Four Courts Bombardment

August 22ndMichael Collins killed in Cork by anti-Treaty forces.

December 6th: Irish Free State is formally established consisting of the whole Ireland of Ireland

December 7th: Six counties of Northern Ireland opts out of the Irish Free State and becomes a separate political entity with allegiance to England.

1923: Late May: Civil War ends with complete victory for Irish government forces. Atrocities had been carried out by both sides.

1926: Eamonn De Valera founds Fianna Fail

1927: Fianna Fail wins 44 seats in the general election and De Valera now enters Dail Eireann, prepared to take an Oath of Allegiance that he railed against during the Treaty debate now describing it merely as an “empty political formula.” Had he taken that view on January 7th 1922, it is quite likely there would have been no Civil War.

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Product Details

SHEIFGAB! Staying Sane, Motivated and Productive in Job Search.

An insightful, realistic, yet humorous book on the job search process by Today in Irish History Curator Conor Cunneen

Special accessible price for job seekers on Kindle of $2.99

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Want to learn more about Ireland? See these images and more in the acclaimed For the Love of Being Irish

Irish gift ideas. Best selling Irish booksRonnie Drew and Luke Kelly - Musical Irish Gifts to the worldJoyce Image in For the Love of Being IrishMichael Collins: Image from For the Love of Being Irish

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This history is written by Irish author, business keynote speaker and award winning humorist IrishmanSpeaks – Conor Cunneen. If you spot any inaccuracies or wish to make a comment, please don’t hesitate to contact us via the comment button.

Visit Conor’s YouTube channel IrishmanSpeaks to Laugh and Learn.

Tags: Best Irish Gift, Creative Irish Gift, Unique Irish Gifts, Irish Books, Irish Authors, Today in Irish History TODAY IN IRISH HISTORY (published by IrishmanSpeaks)

   

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September 14,

Dublin-born Duke of Wellington Meets his Waterloo – Grace Kelly at Today in Irish History

September 14: TODAY in Irish History:

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Sir_Arthur_Wellesley,_1st_Duke_of_Wellington

Snippets of Irish History by Conor Cunneen IrishmanSpeaks 

Conor is a Chicago based Motivational Humorous Business Speaker, Author and History buff.

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Product Details

SHEIFGAB! Staying Sane, Motivated and Productive in Job Search.

An insightful, realistic, yet humorous book on the job search process by Today in Irish History Curator Conor Cunneen

Special accessible price for job seekers on Kindle of $2.99

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1852: Death of Dublin born Duke of Wellington

The Duke of Wellington meets his Waterloo peacefully at the age of 83. He was born in Dublin in what is now The Merrion Hotel.

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Sir_Arthur_Wellesley,_1st_Duke_of_Wellington
Dublin born Duke of Wellington 1769-1852

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Famous for his victory over Napoleon at Waterloo, where it is estimated at least 25% of his troops were Irish, he went on to have a distinguished political career.

In 1828, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the first Irish born person to do so. Although on record as making disparaging remarks about his birthland, as Prime Minister he steered through the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 under pressure from Daniel O’Connell which allowed Catholics (with restrictions) become Members of Parliament.

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Irish artist Daniele Maclise’s portrayal of the Duke of Wellington meeting with German ally Blucher after Waterloo

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READ: Detailed biography of Duke of Wellington

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1901: DEATH OF IRISH AMERICAN PRESIDENT McKINLEY AFTER ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT

Eight days after being shot by anarchist Leon Czolgozc, President William McKinkley dies of his wounds. McKinley was of Scotch-Irish descent. His great-great-grandfather James McKinley had emigrated from Conagher, Ballymoney around 1743.

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Artist representation of McKinleyAssassination
Artist representation of McKinley Assassination

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DAIL VOTES TO APPOINT PLENIPOTENTIARIES TO NEGOTIATE WITH BRITAIN

1921: The Dail votes to appoint plenipotentiaries to negotiate with Britain re Irish independence. In what would turn out to be a momentous decision, De Valera opted NOT to be one of the negotiators stating that the Irish parliament  “recognised themselves but no one else did. He really believed it was vital at this stage that the symbol of the Republic should be kept untouched and that it should not be compromised in any sense by any arrangements which it might be necessary for our plenipotentiaries to make. He was sure the Dáil realised the task they were giving to them—to win for them what a mighty army and navy might not be able to win for them. It was not a shirking of duty, but he realised the position and how necessary it was to keep the Head of the State and the symbol untouched and that was why he asked to be left out.”

Afte meeting in private session, Dáil Éireann met in private session in the Mansion House, the following Plenipotentiaries were unanimously ratified:

Mr. Arthur Griffith, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Chairman.

Mr. Michael Collins, Minister of Finance.

Commandant R.C. Barton, Minister of Economic Affairs.

Mr. E.J. Duggan, representative of Meath and Louth.

Mr. George Gavan Duffy, Irish Envoy at Rome, representative of Dublin County.

READ: Dail Debates For more on PEACE NEGOTIATIONS—RATIFICATION OF PLENIPOTENTIARIES

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Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith
Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith

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DEATH OF GRACE KELLY

1982: Death of the icon of every Irish mother: actress and real life Princess, Grace Kelly. Kelly was killed following a car crash which may have been precipitated by a stroke. Grace Kelly’s grandfather, John Kelly, was born in 1857 in Co. Mayo. Thirty years later, he emigrated to Philadelphia, where he founded a successful construction company. Kelly was proud of her Irish roots. When she visited in 1961, the country went crazy.

Kelly’s film credits include:

Dial M for Murder

Rear Window

High Noon

High Society

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In 1956, to the delight of the social press, Kelly married Prince Ranier of Monaco in a “fairytale” wedding. They had three children.

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shamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrockshamrock

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WATCH: A Short History of Ireland

Want to learn more about Ireland? See these images and more in the acclaimed For the Love of Being Irish

Irish gift ideas. Best selling Irish booksRonnie Drew and Luke Kelly - Musical Irish Gifts to the worldJoyce Image in For the Love of Being IrishMichael Collins: Image from For the Love of Being Irish

___________________________________

This history is written by Irish author, business keynote speaker and award winning humorist IrishmanSpeaks – Conor Cunneen. If you spot any inaccuracies or wish to make a comment, please don’t hesitate to contact us via the comment button.

Visit Conor’s YouTube channel IrishmanSpeaks to Laugh and Learn.

Tags: Best Irish Gift, Creative Irish Gift, Unique Irish Gifts, Irish Books, Irish Authors, Today in Irish History TODAY IN IRISH HISTORY (published by IrishmanSpeaks)